In 2005, New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services asked the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct an independent review of the experiences of foster children who were enrolled in clinical trials for conditions related to HIV and AIDS beginning in the early 1980s. After interviewing people familiar with the trials, reviewing policy documents, and examining the child welfare files of 796 children, Vera staff identified 532 children who were enrolled in 88 clinical trials and observational research studies. This report identifies the procedures established to enroll and monitor these children, determines whether the procedures were followed, and discusses children’s outcomes. It also includes the recommendations of Vera and its Clinical Trials Advisory Board to help child welfare staff, elected representatives, and community advocates address the concerns raised by some of the findings.