The authors would like to thank our generous contacts in New Mexico and North Carolina. In New Mexico, we thank Barron Jones at the ACLU of New Mexico, Phil Fiuty at the Mountain Center in Rio Arriba, Bernie Lieving at the New Mexico Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, Josh Swatek at the New Mexico Department of Health, Shelly Moeller at M&O Consulting, and Gabriel K. Nims at the Bernalillo County Manager’s Office. In North Carolina, we would like to thank Margaret Bordeaux at the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Drs. Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Gary Cuddeback, Marisa Domino, and Evan Ashkin at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Dr. Albert Kopak at Western Carolina University, Robert Childs at JBS International, staff from the Durham County Sheriff’s Office, staff from the Haywood County Sherriff’s Office, and staff and participants from the North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition.

The authors would also like to thank professor Mathew Kiang at Stanford University for sharing their analysis of national trends in overdose death by race and ethnicity and Leo Beletsky, professor and faculty director, and Sarah Seymour, director of projects and strategic planning, of Northeastern University’s Health in Justice Action Lab for sharing their national data on drug-induced homicide cases.

We would also like to thank our colleagues Elizabeth Swavola, Jim Parsons, Chris Henrichson, Nancy Fishman, Leah Pope, Marilyn Sinkewicz, Jacob Kang-Brown, Oliver Hinds, Collin Blinder, Michael Mehler, Kica Matos, and Léon Digard, whose crucial contributions helped shape this report. A special thank you to Hyperakt for their work on the digital design and Patrick Griffin of the MacArthur Foundation for his insight into the final document. Thank you to Elle Teshima and Maris Mapolski for editorial support.

This digital report was created with support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation as part of the Safety and Justice Challenge initiative, which seeks to address overincarceration by changing the way America thinks about and uses jails. Core to the challenge is a grants competition designed to support efforts to improve local criminal justice systems in jurisdictions across the country. The Foundation is supporting a nationwide network of selected local jurisdictions committed to finding ways to safely reduce jail incarceration and address racial and ethnic disparities. More information is available at