1. For 2005 jail population numbers, see William J. Sabol and Todd D. Minton, “Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007,” Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin (Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, 2008), www.csdp.org/research/jim07.pdf. For residency population data, see U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009, 2010.

2. Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, et al., Incarceration’s Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2015), https://www.vera.org/publications/incarcerations-front-door-the-misuse-of-jails-in-america.

3. Referred to for generations as “Orleans Parish Prison,” the New Orleans jail has recently been rebranded as “The Orleans Justice Center.” To avoid any confusion, this report uses “the New Orleans jail,” “New Orleans’s jail,” or just “the jail” interchangeably to describe the system of detention facilities operated by the Orleans Parish Sheriff’s Office.

4. Cynthia Mamalian, State of the Science of Pretrial Risk Assessment (Gaithersburg, MD: Pretrial Justice Institute, 2011), https://www.bja.gov/publications/pji_pretrialriskassessment.pdf.

5. Christopher T. Lowenkamp, Marie VanNostrand, and Alexander Holsinger, The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention (Houston: The Laura and John Arnold Foundation, 2013).

6. Judge Calvin Johnson (Ret.), Mathilde Laisne, and Jon Wool, Justice in Katrina’s Wake: Changing Course on Incarceration in New Orleans (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2015), https://www.vera.org/publications/justice-in-katrinas-wake-changing-course-on-incarceration-in-new-orleans

 7. James Austin, Analysis of Current Orleans Population Trends and Bed Capacity Options (Washington, DC: JFA Institute, 2016).