The authors wish to thank the state departments of corrections who completed the survey and participated in interviews. We would also like to thank Mary Crowley, Christian Henrichson, Jim Parsons, and Fred Patrick for their review and comments; Erika Turner for editing the report and leading the publication process; and Gloria Mendoza for her help in designing the report. We are deeply grateful to the Robert W. Wilson Charitable Trust for supporting this report.

About Citations

As researchers and readers alike rely more and more on public knowledge
made available through the Internet, “link rot” has become a widely acknowledged
problem with creating useful and sustainable citations. To address this issue, the Vera Institute of Justice is experimenting with the use of (, a service that helps scholars, journals, and courts create permanent links to the online sources cited in their work.