This annual report was written by Erica Bryant, developed and edited by Ariel Goldberg and Cindy Reed, and copyedited and proofread by EpsteinWords. Lisha Nadkarni provided additional editorial support. Nazish Dholakia and Sam McCann contributed additional reporting.

Photography was provided by Justin Katigbak, Andrea Morales, Tina Russell, and Reece T. Williams. Illustrations were provided by Mike Centeno and Michelle Garcia.

We would also like to thank Elizabeth Allen, Morgan Bakerman, Karen Ball, Karen Berberich, Annie Chen, Chris Choi, Megan Diamondstein, Margaret diZerega, Damien Dwin, Melissa Garlick, Daniela Gilbert, Hannah Green, Jasmine Heiss, Madison Hindo, Mahsa Jafarian, Raf Jefferson, Akhi Johnson, Nico MacDonald, Zameena Mejia, Sarah Minion, David Nidiffer, Michelle Parris, Lindsay Rosenthal, Will Snowden, Déja Stewart, Vivian Siu, and Nicholas Turner for providing additional information, review, and support.

© Vera Institute of Justice 2022. All rights reserved. For more information about the Vera Institute of Justice, visit

Suggested citation

Vera Institute of Justice. Annual Report 2022. New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2022.