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State and local governments provide representation for immigrants.

These efforts have ensured that immigrants have meaningful opportunities to present their cases to remain in the United States and may decrease the time immigrants spend in detention. In New York City, for example, Vera found that universal representation for detained indigent immigrants in deportation proceedings produces successful outcomes in 48 percent of cases, an 1,100 percent increase from the 4 percent success rate prior to the program for cases in which detained immigrants did not have attorneys.Jennifer Stave, Peter Markowitz, Karen Berberich, Tammy Cho, Danny Dubbaneh, Laura Simich, Nina Siulc, and Noelle Smart, Evaluation of the New York Immigrant Family Unity Project: Assessing the Impact of Legal Representation on Family and Community Unity (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2017).